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This report is in three parts.
These articles appeared in Going Natural.
'Going Natural' is the Bulletin of the Federation of Canadian Naturists.



To Start a Naturist Club - Part 1
by
Doug Beckett.

Reproduced with permission of author.

This article appeared in 'Going Natural' Spring 1996.  This is 
the Bulletin of the Federation of Canadian Naturists.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Why Naturism:

     The great weekend and holiday getaway that streams year 
round from every Canadian community indicates as much as anything 
our need to escape the stress of modern society.  And those who 
study this condition claim that stress is now the fastest growing 
symptom of our troubled western civilization.

     We need some degree of nature to recreate in mind and body 
what has been drained by the daily grind.  Our willingness to 
endure long hours of travel on overloaded highways or waiting in 
line at recreation grounds shows something of this need.

     Even in a country as vast as this, it seems that every acre 
south of the northern wilderness either belongs or is leased to 
someone who plans to mine it, deforest it, farm it or sell it for 
intensive development.  There remains little of that natural 
environment we enjoyed even twenty-five years ago.  Natural 
surroundings are becoming a highly endangered resource.  Every 
year nature gets pushed farther away from our everyday living and 
in subtle ways gets less natural.

     But now we feel sure that naturism offers one of the best of 
all possible solutions in that it combines such a simple and 
natural lifestyle with the lowest possible impact on the 
environment.  But even for naturists, rare enough are suitable 
and accessible places that provide natural environments with 
enough privacy for nude recreation or naturist living.

Who starts a naturist club?

     While naturist clubs have sprung from a wonderful variety of 
beginnings, and many have not survived, the surest start is with 
a small and dedicated group.  And this approach holds true 
whether the club is to be a co-operative or an ownership venture.

     But then, who starts this group?  That is where you need a 
few dedicated naturists, ones who feel sure that , if there is 
ever to be a club in their locality, it is up to them to get it 
started.  These are the ones that are thoroughly convinced that 
naturism is an important part of their lives  a lifestyle that 
is well worth whatever sacrifice and effort is necessary to live 
it as fully as possible.  Others will then become interested when 
it becomes apparent that something is really going to happen.
  
     A group of a dozen, more or less, would be about the best 
number for a start.  You will certainly need ability to share 
and, as well, possess among you some talents for organizing, 
writing, keeping records and, above all, a good measure of common 
sense.  You will also need to be able to accept that, as your 
group develops, there will come others who will build on your 
efforts and in time assume leadership roles.

     Founding members will therefore need some time together to 
get to know each other, to assess talents and resources and to 
find out who are the leaders and who prefer to be supporters.  
And just who will be your leaders?  They will be the ones who 
readily assume responsibility, who will find the needed 
information and are prepared to act on it.  They too will be the 
ones who will draw others into discussions and activities, and as 
well make sure that they also have their share of fellowship and 
fun.

     But to avoid domination by a few strong individuals through 
this process, your group should utilize a "round table" 
discussion format at which each person is in an equal position to 
comment on any topic.  This is a very successful arrangement for 
group participation, especially for integrating new or not so 
outspoken members.  And only when general consensus on any issue 
is not apparent, should a vote be taken.

     You will certainly need some persons who are willing and 
feel quite comfortable to go fully public with their support of 

the naturist lifestyle. This may not be possible for all members, 
even of a founding group  some are bound to have certain 
limitations.  Nor can there be any resentments within the group 
over this matter.  It's like working on a high building  some 
enjoy the heights and its challenges, others do great work in 
laying the foundations.

     Very important too, for your naturist group to prosper, 
there must be a prominent and integral proportion of females, 
especially in leadership roles.  Not only does an equal balance 
of men and women present your most publicly acceptable 
appearance, it offers by far the best prospects for good and 
balanced judgements within your group.  Equally important, 
especially for a founding group, is real experience in social 
nudism.  Preferably this should be some time spent in naturist 
resorts, a vacation or two at least.  The more clubs, resorts and 
nude beaches you have visited, the better you will be equipped to 
decide what will be the most suitable prospect for your group and 
your locality.

     Out of all this must come an indication of what type and 
size of club should be your ultimate aim.  Certainly this 
training period in simple democracy is much needed before 
engaging in the stress of making this choice and then going on to 
the more demanding matters of developing and maintaining the club 
operations in an orderly and financially competent manner.

     The experience of the past decade has shown that the most 
readily accomplished form of organization is a travel club.  This 
is also by far the simplest and least costly form and requires no 
assets other than the group's personal talents.  Financial costs 
are usually limited to a petty cash fund to cover costs of 
mailing and reservation charges for use of commercial facilities.  
All other costs are covered by the membership on pay as you go 
charges for each activity.  Of the five latest groups to form in 
Ontario, three have been travel clubs and, although a new 
phenomena to this region, they have been instantly successful and 
are enjoying rapid growth.

     Then, as any travel club grows and matures, it has 
established a solid membership base which is vital if the 
ultimate wish is to find land and develop and maintain permanent 
club facilities.  

     While operating a co-operative club demands more personal 
and financial commitment from its membership, there is no problem 
of owner succession or unwelcome changes in its naturist concepts 
or business operations.  And nothing more brings a membership 
together in good fellowship than the necessary working and 
sharing for the common good of the club. 

     For an ownership club, the time spent as part of a group 
will be most useful to the prospective owner in assessing the 
group's commitment to becoming a stable supporting membership and 
its potential for future growth.  It will be the owner's most 
important market survey to evaluated whether all the necessary 
investment and work will be worthwhile.  And it will provide 
him/her with valuable training cooperating with a group and 
understanding their interests.

     Even if the owner should consider developing a club as 
something of personal activity/hobby of sorts, it still must be 
financially stable.  Continued financial losses will surely lead 
to early discouragement for even the most dedicated and 
enthusiastic naturist.  Equally important, potential owners 
should realize that operating a naturist park will never be a 
high profit venture at the best of times.  Their efforts should, 
of course, be adequately rewarded, but the simplicity of naturist 
recreation leaves little scope for high profits.  
  
Getting down to business.

     The first matter to be agreed upon is your group's name.  
This is your identity and the flag you rally all your efforts 
around.  For this reason it should show some wit and originality.  
For a few dollars it can be registered at the county court house, 
thus announcing its purpose for any business or legal 
considerations.

     Equally important is an address which, in any case, must 
accompany the name when registered.  A postal mailbox is best, 
rather than someone's home, as it can then be kept in spite of 
any amount of membership restructuring and growth.  The longer a 
name and address can remain unchanged, the better it becomes 
known in and outside the naturist community.  

     A more sophisticated step in communication would be to 
obtain a business telephone number that can be listed in the 
yellow pages and Information.  In this case, the group's message 
should be put into an answering machine to give continuous 
service.  This is much better than requiring anyone to stay close 
to the telephone and also eliminates any of your group from 
exposure to crank calls.

Getting organized.

     Be it ever so simple, every human activity needs some form 
of organization for its plans and activities to achieve any 
tangible result.  In fact, there can be no real progress until 
there is a reasonable consensus as to what are the aims of your 
group's actions and the process of coordinating the efforts of 
all the people involved.  To this end than, must be devoted your 
first real efforts.  Your founding members, at the first informal 
meetings, much put together a basic form of organization that 
will be adequate to develop their ideas.

     From these meetings will come, as we have said, a knowledge 
of the respective strengths and limitations of each person in the 
group and the most suited activity delegated to each.

     As much as possible, everyone in your group should have a 
valuable share of the work to do.  It is through working and 
sharing together that each person will feel a real part of the 
action and become determined to carry out its objectives.  And by 
fully delegating the work, no one should feel overworked, and the 
fun of the venture equally enjoyed by all.  To ensure that the 
fun part is not neglected, gathering for purely social purposes 
(even in non-naturist activities and surroundings) should be a 
regular practice.

     For every division of proposed activity, appoint a committee 
to share the work with at least one leader.  Even the most 
enthusiastic leader will need reliable supporters to help as 
there can so often be the additional demands of family, home, 
work and non-naturist friends and activities.

     The most immediate task will be membership, growth, public 
relations, secretarial and finances.  To co-ordinate even this 
modest organization, appoint a president and back-up vice-
president.

     At any point in your activities, don't be devastated if 
someone decides to withdraw from your group.  Everyone has their 
own picture of what any venture should become and their place in 
it, so it is inevitable that some may find their ideas too much 
at odds with the facts.  Others may just find that it is going to 
take more time, effort or dedication than they had anticipated, 
and that they have other priorities.  Whatever their reasons, and 
there can be many, let them withdraw gracefully and retain their 
friendship.

Records.

     From the very beginning, complete and accurate records mush 
be kept of all your group's decision, activities and finances.  
So much time, effort and good will can be lost if the resolutions 
of every meeting and discussion are not readily available.  No 
matter how simple the activity, no one can be expected to recall 
exactly what was decided at any previous meeting, with the result 
that much time and trust can be lost in going back over lost 
ground.

     This is especially true in the matter of finances.  The 
bookkeeping too can be simple but it must be able to account for 
every cent, and this should be verified by an annual audit by 
members form other committees or an experienced bookkeeper.

     As time goes on, responsibilities and records will 
inevitably be passed on to other members who will be completely 
at a loss unless they can review the records of what has been 
done and assess the requirements of the work they are assuming. 

Outreach.

     The real purpose of all this organization is, of course, to 
be capable of developing a sufficiently sincere and active group 
that can attract and direct enough membership and resources to 
proceed on to establish a naturist resort, or whatever is the 
ultimate aim fo your group.

     Your first need will be to gain a larger membership  people 
who have or can be encouraged to hold an enduring conviction o f 
the value of naturist living and want to share it with your 
group.  In most regions of Canada there can be found at least a 
few who have had some naturist experience and would like to 
become part of your group.  Others can be mad receptive to 
naturism, once it is clearly and honestly presented.  But the 
greatest challenge will be to reach potential new members.

     The first and surest way of finding suitable membership is 
by word of mouth.  Nothing gains more interest than a personal 
account of how a great group of people are having a wonderful 
time enjoying a new and unique lifestyle.  Only in conversation 
can you present, at one time, your experiences and the answer to 
all of their concerns, and in a way that best suits the 
prospective members.  However, it does have its limitations in 
the number of receptive people that nay small group can contact 
in everyday life.  

     High pressure promotion, dogmatic opinions and lace of 
consideration for the values and interest of others have no place 
in this process and will surely do much harm.  It is most 
important that your group develop an agreed upon public relations 
strategy so that all will speak with a consistent voice about the 
naturist lifestyle.

     In all this, the Federation of Canadian Naturists can be of 
considerable help.  While its membership list is strictly 
confidential, it can certainly notify all of its members in any 
region about the forming of a new group.  And to help your group 
encourage new members, the FCN can provide brochures, magazines, 
videos and other promotional materials, all of which can be very 
useful to your efforts at a time when your finances and 
promotional experience are at their lowest.  As well, it will 
announce the formation of your new group in this bulletin, thus 
informing any of its readers who may wish to contact your group.

     Of equal benefit is that, in becoming associated with the 
FCN, you become part of a Canadian national organization that is 
well established in the naturist movement, both in Canada and 
internationally through the FCN's membership in the International 
Naturist Federation (INF).  The FCN has or can draw on a wide and 
growing variety of experience in the Canadian approach to 
naturist public relations, promotion, government regulations and 
procedures and, as well, offer business and land development 
advice.  It is much easier for a new group to adapt proven 
experience and information to their use than to try to develop it 
all from the beginning.

     Furthermore, as soon as your group is soundly established, 
it can be listed in the Canadian Guide to Naturist Resorts and 
Beaches which will reach a readership far beyond the FCN 
membership.

Advertising.

     Next to personal contact, the most successful technique has 
been to place small ads in local newspapers.  Now that many 
papers publish special weekend editions, an ad placed in the 
lifestyle or resorts and recreation section should have a much 
better chance of response than the classified column.  This will 
be more expensive than a classified ad but, if run every two 
weeks or even once a month, it should prove to be more cost 
effective.

     Since most Canadian newspapers now have some familiarity 
with naturism, a naturist ad is usually accepted with no 
hesitation.  In fact, it may be considered as a useful lead to a 
future story.  So make a personal visit to the newspaper office 
to arrange the ad.  This could be one of your most important 
public relations ventures, so have two or three of your group 
make the visit, with at least one of them a woman.  It has been 
proven b many experiences that she will add immensely to your 
credibility and acceptance.  If they show any sign of interest, 
develop some conversation and perhaps leave your group brochure.  
Any personal knowledge of your group will help them view naturism 
more from your perspective - that of a healthy, happy and ver 
natural lifestyle.  Hopefully, they will retain this perspective 
when they print future references to naturism or even an article 
- the very best form of advertising. 

     We are fortunate in Canada in that the media most often 
takes a quite positive attitude towards naturism, and at times is 
even very supportive, such as their defense, a few years ago, of 
Wreck and Crystal Crescent Beaches.

     The real success of any ad will depend on the skill with 
which it is written.  If possible, refrain from using the word 
"nudist", as unfortunately it still carries some association in 
the public mind with the hackneyed "nudist colony" concept.  
"Nude" or "clothing-optional" recreation is an in-fashion concept 
that even some non-naturist tropical resorts are beginning to 
use.  And the FCN still prefers the word "naturist" above all, as 
it is fast gaining recognition in the media and, while 
maintaining social nudity as its central theme, it represents a 
lifestyle with a much wider scope of interest than nude living 
alone.  

     Good advertising will imply that naturism provides a unique 
opportunity for good family style fun, fellowship and a wide 
choice of activities (including just plain relaxation).  And with 
it, there is the complete freedom to share it all in the nude 
with others of like mind.  The FCN will be happy to assist your 
group with samples of ads from their records and the advice of 
experienced staff who have a deft way with words.

Brochures.

     Your brochure will be your first impression on those who 
request information about your group and the naturist lifestyle.  
So do it well - gather all the samples you can, non-naturist as 
well, and study the most effective presentations.  There are 
numerous naturist brochures that have excellent descriptions of 
the naturist lifestyle.  Then add information about your group, 
what it is doing and what it plans to achieve.

     Enlist the help of someone with artistic ability to arrange 
the layout and perhaps add a sketch or two.  And definitely have 
the type set on a computer with a laser printer.  This produces a 
professional quality printing, far better than a typewriter, and 
can be done for a few dollars a page.

     For the small quantities of brochures that you will need at 
first, photocopying can be quite comparable in cost to job 
printing.  As well, it gives you more freedom to make minor 
changes and improvements as both your promotional skills and 
objectives develop.

============================================================

To Start A Naturist Club - Part 2
By
Doug Beckett. 

Reproduced with permission of author.

This article appeared in 'Going Natural' (Winter 1992),  the 
Bulletin of the Federation of Canadian Naturists.

--------------------------------------------------------------

     In my previous discussion on this subject (Going Natural, 
Summer 1991), I concluded with a brief remark about club 
activities.  However, much more can be said on this matter.

     Let's assume that your club has progressed through the 
previously mentioned stages and now consists of a few dozen 
enthusiastic supporters and some resourceful leaders.  And the 
consensus of the group is to find and develop their own naturist 
park.

     As this can sometimes be a lengthy process, it is vital that 
the group find sufficient activities to maintain their 
enthusiasm, strengthen their organization and draw in new 
members.  You have advertised that you are a great group of 
people having a wonderful time enjoying a new and unique 
lifestyle - so it is most important to continue doing just that.

     Your activities can start with something as simple as a 
sauna and games night in a member's recreation room.  If there is 
table tennis or a pool table, that can be the basis for an every 
person tournament.  Then others can bring their favorite games as 
well - darts, crokinole, board games - anything that has a bit of 
action and circulates the group.  And food should be a group 
effort too, with pot luck suppers or put-together lunches.

     On a larger scale, there are often commercial saunas or hot 
tubs that can be rented for several hours in an evening or 
weekend afternoon with the group later returning to a member's 
home for games or lunch.  Free beach groups on both coasts are 
having great success with regularly renting a swimming pool for 
the evening.  Building staff have been favorably impressed with 
the organization and commendable behaviour of these naturist 
groups.  But one vital item advice - when first approaching any 
commercial or institutional organization to make arrangements to 
rent, do so with a small group that includes one or two mature 
women.  This adds great credibility to your first impressions. 

     Summertime, of course provides an almost unlimited scope for 
activities, with visiting naturist parks as a priority.  As well 
as being able to take part in complete naturist environments, 
there are opportunities for your group to examine each park and 
decide the type and facilities they would adopt for their own 
future park.  

     Then, closer to home, search for naturist-friendly country 
opportunities; a member's farm or homestead, a reasonably 
screened vacant field or property that can be rented, or even a 
secluded area of crown land that is know to be ignored by the 
local populace.  Even a solid fenced swimming pool or patio can 
provide an enjoyable activity site for a smaller group.  A 
naturist friend has been clever enough to twice find, in large 
Ontario cities, homes that had large back yards completely 
surrounded by high cedar hedges that cut the view from adjacent 
one story houses.  They and their friends are able to enjoy nude 
swimming, lounging and barbecues in an urban setting.

     Boating can also offer many opportunities for nude 
recreation, either through transportation to isolated shores or 
when far enough from shore that the lack of swim suits is not 
apparent.  As many as fifty boats with nude crews have 
congregated on a warm summer day at an uninhabited location on 
Lake Simcoe in the heart of Ontario's vacation land.  They found 
that they are ignored by any passing police patrols.  And many 
more boaters enjoy nude freedom on the waters and uninhabited 
shores of Lake Huron's Thirty Thousand Islands.



Choosing a Club Property

     As I mentioned in a previous article, your decisions as to 
the size, type, facilities and location of a club property will 
be your most challenging activity.  This is where the widest 
possible naturist experience is so valuable.  Every naturist 
property you visit is a lesson in the right and wrong way to do 
things. Therefore,  before making any binding decisions about 
your own property, discuss fully all the properties that your 
group members have visited and compile a record of the advantages 
and disadvantages of each.

     Nothing surpasses the advantage of building on the 
experience of others.  It is ever so much easier to understand 
the physical and social operations of a club when you can 
actually experience them.

     So to successfully plan a site development, your group must 
be able to reach a consensus on many things.  Firstly, what size 
of property should be sought?  This will, of course, be 
influenced by the cost of land in your area.  You may find that 
large (50-100 acre) properties may be comparatively reasonable.  
While a one acre rural building lot may be priced at $25,000, 
about $100,000 may buy a full 100 acre farm (1992 prices) just a 
few miles farther from paved roads, especially if there is a 
derelict house or the land is of poor agricultural quality.

     While even the largest clubs in this country make full use 
of only twenty or thirty acres, any additional area provides both 
a valuable screen and a little-used environmental zone where the 
ecology of the area can be left to rejuvenate.  A house is rarely 
an asset unless you are intending that a club member live there - 
which is also an excellent protection for the property if it can 
be arranged.  And even the poorest land will grow trees.  Some of 
our finest pine forests grow on pure dry sand and gravel.

     But, while a large acreage may be your ideal, it is not 
always possible or at least not in the earlier stages of club 
growth.  Nothing causes dismay and dissension in a group faster 
than strained financial resources.  So plan realistically.  If, 
on a large acreage, you can combine club use with a leased 
residence or some other compatible use that makes it financially 
reasonable and your group is strong and growing, so much the 
better.  But make very sure that the combined use is fully 
compatible with the naturist activities and that leases can be 
readily and legally terminated if any friction does develop.

     If there is no suitable large acreage presently available 
within a reasonable commuting distance, then perhaps something 
less would serve for a short term.  If your group has its hopes 
set on a property of their own, than a short term site can serve 
to sustain enthusiasm.  For surely if the search for property 
goes on too long without success, the enthusiasm and drive of 
your group will erode and valuable members will drift away.

     The smaller the property you choose, the more important to 
you will be its adjacent environment.  A farm woodlot or 
conservation forest make the ideal close neighbour  although some 
clubs live quite comfortable next to pasture or working fields.  
Just make sure that the farmer neighbour knows that you will be 
quiet, considerate and environmentally friendly neighbours that 
can be called on for assistance for any emergency around the 
farm.  There again it should be a mature male and female group 
who introduces your club to the neighbours.  And nothing else 
helps your introduction like offers to help repair or construct 
fences or maintain drains. 

     Probably the most important consideration in the land search 
is to choose land that can be most suitable to your proposed 
activities without any reworking.  Nothing creates as much 
environmental havoc as earthmoving.



Legalities

     When you have finally found the right land, of a size to 
contain all the facilities you hope to develop, in a pleasant and 
private environment and at a price you can well afford, then 
comes the task of obtaining all necessary approvals.  This is a 
process that will vary widely depending on the requirements of 
the municipal zoning bylaws.

     The proposed ownership of land will also have a considerable 
bearing on your zoning category.  If you intend to own land in 
the name of your group. That will first require an incorporation 
process for which you will require a lawyer to guide you through 
- a fairly simple and straightforward action.  This should also 
state the interests of every member in any property to be 
acquired, how subsequent members will acquire an interest and how 
retiring members may give up their interest at a future date.  
You will find that there is a variety of ways in which you can be 
incorporated - as a co-operative, a shareholder group or some 
other arrangement - these should be carefully investigated and 
evaluated as to the best suited to your interests.

     You may find that for owning land as a private club the 
zoning requirements will be less demanding than as a commercial 
enterprise.  But here again there are many possible variations.  
Hopefully you can qualify under the permitted land uses for your 
proposed property or with minor adjustments to one of them.  Both 
the combination of land uses and their interpretation can vary 
considerably in each municipality.  And if there is to be a 
zoning adjustment or change, it could be wise to meet your future 
neighbours to give them a true understanding of the naturist 
lifestyle and to prevent any serious objections to the zoning 
change.

     As well as the municipal government, a variety of other 
organizations will have a say in your property development.  For 
example, the county health department will want to know all your 
plans for water supply and sewage and garbage disposal.  And if 
there is a stream or pond that will be used for swimming, this 
must also be checked for water quality.

     As all this approving may take some time, depending on the 
complexity of the municipal planning a development requirements, 
you will need to hold the property by means of an accepted offer 
that states your purchase will be conditional on being able to 
obtain all necessary government approvals.  This should include a 
period of time, say thirty days or more, for any possible 
reversal of approval by some government department. This has 
happened.



Planning for Development

     There are an infinite number of ways in which a plot of land 
can be developed into an ideal naturist park.  So keep your 
imaginations free and active and let your site plans develop 
around the size, shape and natural conditions of the land.  Plan 
the roads, activity areas, camping and buildings around any 
existing watercourses, humps and hollows, trees and open spaces.  
The only earthmoving should be when necessary to build a pond or 
pool.   And the disposal of excavated material must be as 
carefully considered as the digging.

     Your provincial government (Ministry of Natural Resources) 
has air photos of all of its land and, if you identify your 
property on one of their air photos, they can produce a large 
scale enlargement that makes a wonderful planning base.  The cost 
is less than fifty dollars and maximum scale is approximately 1 
inch = 100 feet.  Every open space, creek, dry watercourse and 
even individual trees will show clearly on this photo.  This can 
save endless wandering around on the property and not being sure 
of your exact relation to property lines or major land features.

     With this photo, walk through the site, identifying your 
location on it as you go until you gain a working familiarity.  
However, if your property is level open ground or small in size, 
then this process becomes much simpler.  But even on small 
properties, this planning is just as necessary as the best use of 
every metre of land becomes quite important.

     Then tape your air photo to a sheet of plywood slightly 
larger in size, and over that tape a sheet of tracing mylar 
obtainable at art, stationery and drafting supply stores).  Now 
you are ready to make a simple map locating to scale the full 
development of your property.  Regardless of how many stages it 
may take to fully implement your development or how many years it 
will require, a clear proposal of all you hope to do is 
absolutely necessary.  This can be revised as time goes on, but 
you will then know that the impact of any revision will be on the 
whole design. 

     The next step is to take your plans and a bundle of stakes 
(1 inch x 3 inch x 3 foot long with the top foot painted with fluorescent 
paint) and locate on the ground all your planned facilities - 
roads, parking areas, swimming pool or pond, sports area, sunning 
areas, clubhouse, camping areas, etc.

     The first thing you will find is that what seemed good on 
the plan will usually need minor revisions - the inevitable 
result of trying to transfer a concept from a piece of paper to a 
large area of ground.  Then too, valuable trees must be 
preserved, steep slopes avoided, the location of sunny and shady 
areas noted and the desired sense of shelter or openness 
achieved.

     All this may seem like a lot of work, and it can be, 
especially when there is much enthusiasm to get on to the land 
and start some physical activity.  But it always takes less time 
and work than redoing something that was wrongly located. 

=====================================================================

To Start A Naturist Club - Part 3
By
Doug Beckett. 

Reproduced with permission of author.

This article appeared in 'Going Natural' (Winter 1993),  the 
Bulletin of the Federation of Canadian Naturists.

--------------------------------------------------------------

     The previous discussion on this subject (Winter 1992) ended 
with a brief outline of the process of planning your proposed club 
facilities and then marking them out on the ground.  When all this 
is done to the satisfaction of your group - and only then - 
construction can begin.  This consensus on what and how work is to 
be done on your property is vitally important - any real 
disagreements will greatly reduce the enthusiasm and efforts of 
your group.

     I have shown here sketches of what could be developed on 
properties as small as two and ten acres.  (Sketches not 
included).  While it would be much preferable in both cases to 
have wooded areas around the perimeter for a more natural effect, 
this does give some idea of what could be done with the very 
minimum of property.  Most of our larger clubs on 50 to 100 acre 
properties really use only 20 to 30 acres for all their 
activities, including ponds, sunning, sports and camping areas.

     The secret of success in every case is good and thorough 
planning.  This can't be emphasized too much.  Each item of work 
done, then adds to the total development and nothing is wasted by 
being reworded, torn down or discarded.  And every loss of initial 
effort is sure to produce resentment.



Construction

     First to be constructed will be access roads to get into your 
property and to serve the various areas of the land.  Build just 
as much as you need to for the first stage.  And on the 
construction of the road system hangs a great deal of the 
attractiveness of your park.

     So, consider that firstly your park is for people, not 
vehicles, so roads should be as unobtrusive as possible.  A good 
principle is to have as few as possible roads and locate them 
around the perimeter of the developed area so that vehicles and 
people, especially children, meet as little as possible.  It is 
not really necessary to have vehicle access to the door of every 
campsite;  grouping cars in small parking areas (3 to 7) saves a 
lot of road construction and greatly preserves the naturalness of 
the property.

     Park roads can be narrow, one land (3 to 4 metres) wide, with 
half a metre of clear firm ground on each side to pull out on when 
meeting another vehicle.  Such roads can freely wind around mature 
trees, large rocks and steep slopes and hollows and are still 
quite adequate for cars to pass at speeds of 15-20 km/hr. and, as 
ell, greatly reduce the environmental impact, as well as 
tendencies to drive too fast.

     When roadways are cleared of all vegetation and stumps 
removed, then also remove the topsoil which can be from 5 to 20 
centimetres deep.  This should be picked up by a front-end loader 
and hauled to a disposal site - some area that in your plans 
require filling.  Do not pushed it off to the sides of your 
roadway or it will remain an unsightly ridge forever.

     For the light traffic and slow speeds expected on your roads, 
a layer of crushed gravel 10 to 15 centimetres deep should be 
adequate, the shallower dimension on sandy soils and the deeper on 
clays.  This is a minimum road base to get you started, more can 
be added later if found to be necessary.

     Also, be very watchful to preserve the natural drainage 
adjacent to roads;  every crossing waterway, no matter how small, 
should be contained in a culvert.  As long as the road surface 
follows closely to the surface of the existing ground, ditches 
should not be necessary and can often be more of a problem by 
concentrating the flow of water.



Services

     The very first service needed will be a water supply, even as 
simple as a well and hand pump.  Your original assessment of the 
land to meet health requirements would have included an 
investigation that proved that an adequate water supply would be 
available and that there are areas of soil suitable for sanitary 
sewage disposal but if your immediate ambitions go beyond the hand 
pump, then electric power much be brought onto the property.   If 
a good flow of water can be found at less than 20 foot depth, then 
your waterworks system can be dug well with tightly sealed 
concrete top and a suction or jet pump located at ground level 
pumping into a steel pressure tank.  If water must come from a 
greater depth, then a drilled well and submersible pump supplying 
the pressure tank will be the system needed.

     Presuming that electric power is available along your country 
road, it will be your responsibility to contact a licensed 
electrical contractor to run wires from the power lines to where 
ever you want it available on your property.  If at all possible, 
run your electric power supply underground.  It will cost more 
initially, but you will forever enjoy the absence of poles and 
hanging wires, the freedom from the cost of repairs and 
inconvenience and danger of wires brought down by ice or falling 
trees or branches.  So, initially, bring electric power to the 
location you have designated for your clubhouse, install the main 
switch and distribution box there (leaving a few loops of extra 
wire at the top of the pole), then run a service line from there 
to your well pump.  When you get around to building the first 
stage of a clubhouse, the electrical control panel can then be 
easily installed by just reconnecting the original supply line to 
the new panel.

     The most difficult service to provide will be sewage 
disposal.  This may start with something as simple as a couple of 
well-maintained pit toilets.  And an effective solution to keeping 
these odour-free is to equip each with a bucket of wood ashes to 
be sprinkled down the hole after each use.

     Inevitably, there will come a time when growth, development 
and a good supply of pumped water will generate a demand for flush 
toilets.  While this is sure to be heralded as a big step n 
comfort and convenience, it will also require an expensive sewage 
disposal system.  But there are options which can help to greatly 
reduce this cost.

     Your County Health Department will have a detailed list of 
requirements on such a system, how it is to be built and the size 
required to serve your group.  Firstly, it will most likely be 
required that the work be done by a licensed installer and 
possibly that the system be designed by a consulting engineer.

     A good point to start is to presume that your most used 
washroom facilities will be in your future clubhouse and that the 
disposal field will be under an adjacent lawn.  Then make a 
reasonable estimate of the number of people you hope to have in 
your group in say five years.  Then there are a lot of other 
variables to consider - will the system be for day-use only, for 
weekend campers or week-long or longer holidays?  The Health 
Department will inevitably demand that the system be designed for 
a much larger flow capacity per person per day than will ever be 
required.

     So the trick here is to install the size of septic tank 
required or even larger, since the largest is only a few hundred 
dollars more than the smallest.  Then build the disposal field, 
the most expensive part, in units with the first unit sized to 
serve the present group numbers.  A water meter on the water 
supply will give an accurate measurement of the flow to the sewage 
system.  Additional disposal field units will not be required 
until the metered daily flow comes up to the rated flow capacity 
of the disposal field.

     In most naturist parks, the actual water demand for each 
camping area is far less than official estimates - a difficult 
thing to prove to the authorities.  But that inexpensive meter 
(the same as you find in a city home) will prove your case and 
save construction of a large, expensive and underused bed.  And if 
your club does grow much more quickly than expected, the bed 
capacity can be doubled or tripled with no interruption to the 
operation and almost no more cost than if built at the time of the 
original installation.

     For larger parks, it is best to plan for small disposal units 
where most conveniently needed and good disposal conditions exist.  
These will be much like standard rural residential units and of 
similar cost.  A large central unit can be much more complex and 
require a fully engineered design.

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